On November 19th, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered one of the most famous speeches in American History. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address was written for the dedication of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery in Gettysburg, PA only four and a half months after the famous battle that would turn the tide of the Civil War. Before Gettysburg, the Union Army had suffered defeat after defeat at the hands of the Confederates, and victory seemed nearly out of reach. Â After more than a year of setbacks on the battlefield, the Union had finally achieved a decisive victory against the Confederacy at Gettysburg. The tide of the Civil War was beginning to turn in favor of the Union. With victory in sight, President Lincoln’s dedication speech reminded Americans that the Civil War was about more than emancipation–it was about preserving democracy itself. President Lincoln’s speech served as a rallying cry for the Union’s cause, and continues to inspire Americans today. But the Gettysburg Address would not have been possible without a victory on the battlefield. In Gettysburg: The Last Invasion, Professor Allen C. Guelzo examines the battle in exquisite detail. If you’re interested in learning more about the Gettysburg Address on its 152nd anniversary, this audiobook is the best place to begin.
In June of 1863, the Civil War had reached a critical point. In the West, General Ulysses S. Grantâ€™s Army of the Tennessee had completely surrounded the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi, but was unable to capture the strategically important city. In the East, the Union was once again reeling from defeat, having suffered heavy losses at the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. The Commander of the Army of the Potomac, General Joseph â€śFighting Joeâ€ť Hooker (in spite of his nickname) remained passive; keeping his army camped in Fredericksburg between Lee and Washington D.C. Robert E. Lee, however, was not content to sit tight and wait for Hooker to attack. Lee was planning to end the war in one fell swoop with another invasion of the North, this time through Pennsylvania. Lee planned to draw the Union Army into battle on ground of his choosing and defeat it. Once the bulk of the Army of the Potomac was defeated, Lee would be free to strike at Harrisburg, Philadelphia, or even Washington D.C. itself. Popular support for the war was already low. If the Union lost the capital, it would have been virtually impossible to continue fighting the war.
To celebrate the birthday of the Gettysburg Address, we present this selection of clips from Gettysburg: The Last Invasion by acclaimed Civil War historian Allen C. Guelzo. Gettysburg is a brilliant new historyâ€”the most intimate and richly readable account we have hadâ€”of the climactic three-day battle of Gettysburg (July 1â€“3, 1863), which draws youÂ into the heat, smoke, and grime of Gettysburg alongside the ordinary soldier, and depicts the combination of personalities and circumstances that produced the greatest battle of the Civil War and one of the greatest speeches in history.
Track One – Choosing the Battlefield
In this track, Guelzo discusses the decision-making process that led both armies to Gettysburg. General Meade preferred a cautious strategy, reserving most of his army corps at Pipe Creek, in Maryland while General Lee, just hearing about the Union Armyâ€™s crossing of the Potomac, sent out his army in search of supplies and any information about the Army of the Potomacâ€™s whereabouts. Meanwhile, Union General John Reynolds recognized the advantage Gettysburgâ€™s terrain offered the Union Army, and moved his First Corps into position to defend the town.
The only problem with General Reynoldsâ€™ plan was that his corps was still too far outside Gettysburg to engage Leeâ€™s army. It fell to General John Bufordâ€™s cavalry company to hold the battlefield long enough for the Union Army to arrive in force. General Lee strictly ordered his generals to avoid a general engagement, but this order quickly fell to the wayside when A.P. Hillâ€™s Corps met Bufordâ€™s cavalry. Buford and his men would hold their ground until General Reynoldsâ€™ arrival. Unfortunately for the Union Army, Reynolds was killed by a Confederate sharpshooter minutes after reaching the battlefield. The Union and Confederates fought back and forth through the town of Gettysburg. At the end of the first day of fighting, the Union Army had held onto the commanding position of Cemetery Hill, but only just barely, and at great cost.
Track Three – Little Round Top
The engagement at Little Round Top is possibly the most famous portion of the Battle of Gettysburg. Here, Guelzo describes the 20th Maineâ€™s rushed entry into the battle, and the furious back and forth fighting at the far left of the Union flank. This was one of many decisive engagements between the Union and Confederate sides, and commander Joshua Lawrence Chamberlainâ€™s daring last-minute bayonet charge remains one of the most famous military maneuvers in American history.
At the same time the 20th Maine was fighting on Little Round Top, the Unionâ€™s right flank was also under attack. In this clip, Guelzo describes the fighting on Culpâ€™s Hill. While not nearly as famous as the fighting around Little Round Top, Union defenders under General George S. Greene held off waves of Confederate attacks and held the vital Cemetery Hill, which would be critical for the Union on the next day. After two days of stalemate, Robert E. Lee decided to mount one final attack with his last fresh division. This last charge across Âľ mile of open ground would decide the fate of both armies, and quite possibly the entire war.
After Pickettâ€™s Division failed to break through the Union lines, the Battle of Gettysburg was effectively over. The Confederate Army’s strength had been exhausted, and the Union Army was pushed to its absolute limits. Neither side could risk another direct engagement without risking total annihilation. In just three days, the Battle of Gettysburg changed the entire complexion of the Civil War. General Meade hadnâ€™t destroyed General Leeâ€™s army, but he had decisively ended Leeâ€™s invasion of Pennsylvania and proved that the Confederates were not invincible in the field. Just as the Unionâ€™s Army of the Potomac triumphed at Gettysburg, the Confederate defenders of Vicksburg surrendered to General Grantâ€™s Army of the Tennessee. In one day, the Union had defeated Robert E. Leeâ€™s invasion of the North and secured control of the entire Mississippi River. Though the Civil War would rage on for two more bloody years, the Confederate Army would not invade the North again.
Four and a half months after the Union’s victory at Gettysburg, the President of the United States delivered a dedication speech at the newly-opened Soldiers’ National Cemetery in Gettysburg. His speech became one of the most famous ever delivered. In this clip, Professor Guelzo analyzes the famous speech line-by-line. If you’ve ever been curious about the meaning behind the famous lines, you’ll love this clip.